The Anglo-American Convention of 1818: An International Friendship Begins

My upcoming novel, An Unsuitable Duchess, is a historical romance about the daughter of an American diplomat and an English duke. The story is set in London in 1818. While I was researching what the relationship was like between the United States and Great Britain during that time, I came across information about the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. I’m certain it was covered in one of my history classes in Junior High School, but I had forgotten all about it. Now I can appreciate the importance of this convention that resulted in the Treaty of 1818, which determined, among other things, the 49th parallel as the border between the United States and British North America (Canada). Many historians believe the negotiations surrounding this Treaty were the beginning of congenial relations between the United States and Great Britain.

The convention is referred to by many names: The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary, and the restoration of slaves between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, and simply the Treaty of 1818. It was held in London in October of 1818 and the Treaty was signed on October 20th. Ratifications took place on January 30, 1819. The opening paragraph of the Treaty explains the purpose and who conducted the negotiations.

The United States of America, and His Majesty The King [George IV of the United Kingdom] of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, desirous to cement the good Understanding which happily subsists between them, have, for that purpose, named their respective Plenipotentiaries, that is to say: The President of the United States [James Monroe], on his part, has appointed, Albert Gallatin, Their Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of France; and Richard Rush, Their Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of His Britannic Majesty: And His Majesty has appointed The Right Honorable Frederick John Robinson [1st Viscount Goderich], Treasurer of His Majesty’s Navy, and President of the Committee of Privy Council for Trade and Plantations; and Henry Goulburn Esquire, One of His Majesty’s Under Secretaries of State: Who, after having exchanged their respective Full Powers, found to be in due and proper Form, have agreed to and concluded the following Articles.

The Treaty consisted of six articles. Here’s a breakdown of what each accomplished:

Article 1 – Secured fishing rights off the shores of Newfoundland Labrador for the United States.

Article 2 – Set the boundary between British North America (Canada) and the United States “along the line from the most northwestern point of Lake in the Woods along the 49th parallel of north latitude to the Stony Mountains (Rocky Mountains).” Great Britain also ceded the part of Rupert’s Land the Red River Colony south of the 49th parallel. Fun fact: The border between the United States and Canada is 5,525 miles (8,891 km) long. It is the longest international border in the world.


Article 3 – Set equal control of the Oregon Country, which was the Colombia District of the Hudson Bay Company, for ten years. It was agreed that both countries would control the territory and their citizens were guaranteed free navigation through the territory without interference from the other country.

Article 4 – Confirmed regulation of commerce between the two countries for an additional ten years. It also extended the stipulation that vessels of the United States could not dock or hold communication with the Island of St. Helena as long as Napoleon Bonaparte was in residence there.

Article 5 – An agreement was reached that would defer differences over the United States claim in regards to the Treaty of Ghent would be resolved by “some Friendly Sovereign or State to be named for that purpose.” The United States claimed the British had taken some slaves belonging to Americans during the War of 1812. They wanted these slaves returned or compensation given for them.

Article 6 – Stated that ratification would occur within six months after the Treaty was signed.

James Monroe's note to the US Senate regarding the Treaty of 1818

James Monroe’s note to the US Senate regarding the Treaty of 1818, courtesy of Rice on History blog.

In reviewing the Treaty of 1818, I also found it interesting to see a map of what the United States looked like at the time.

A map of the United States by mapmaker John Melish, published in 1820, following the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. Courtesy of CBS News.

A map of the United States by mapmaker John Melish, published in 1820, following the Anglo-American Convention of 1818. Courtesy of CBS News.

If you are interested in reading the Treaty of 1818, this link from Yale Law School presents the document in its entirety:

References used:

CBS News:

Rice on History:

Yale Law School


The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and its Ties to Regency England

The Headless Horseman

With Halloween approaching, it seems like the ideal time to tell you the tale of how one of America’s best-loved ghost stories has its roots tied to Regency England. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is a short story written by the American author Washington Irving and was published in 1820. Many of you may be familiar with the story of Ichabod Crane and the Headless Horseman. If you’ve never read the story, this is a quick recap.

The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is set in 1790 around Tarry Town (sic), New York and a secluded, nearby glen known as Sleepy Hollow. Schoolmaster Ichabod Crane comes to town and sets his sights on marrying the town heiress, Katrina Van Tassel. Unfortunately for Ichabod, he has competition for her hand from local bad boy Brom Bones. One autumn night, Ichabod attends a party at the Van Tassel’s and listens to the locals recount the tales of the ghosts that haunt the area. The most fearsome ghost is that of a Hessian trooper who had his head shot off by a cannonball during a battle in the American Revolution. Each night this Headless Horseman rides to the scene of the battle in search of his head.

As the party breaks up for the night, Ichabod fails to secure Katrina’s hand and rides from her home “heavy-hearted and crestfallen” toward his schoolhouse in Sleepy Hollow. After passing a tree supposedly haunted by the ghost of British spy Major André, Ichabod spots a large cloaked figure on horseback. He quickly realizes the man’s head is not upon his shoulders but on his saddle. Terrified, Ichabod races across the bridge adjacent to the Old Dutch Church with the Headless Horseman in hot pursuit. The specter hurls his severed head at Ichabod, and it crashes into the schoolmaster, knocking him from his horse.


Ichabod Crane, Respectfully Dedicated to Washington Irving from William J. Wilgus, artist, c. 1856.

The next morning, the townspeople find Ichabod’s horse wandering around the cemetery of the Old Dutch Church along with his trampled saddle, and his hat lying beside a shattered pumpkin. Brom Bones goes on to marry Katrina, and the old Dutch wives believe Ichabod was “spirited away by supernatural means.” Years later, an old farmer arrives in town and informs them Ichabod is still alive. He fled the area because he was mortified by Katrina’s rejection and feared the Headless Horseman.

So how does a ghost story that takes place in a small Dutch hamlet in New York and written by an American, have a connection to Regency England? For that, we need to look closer at the author, Washington Irving.


Portrait of Washington Irving by John Wesley Jarvis, 1809.

Washington Irving was born in New York City in 1783. At the age of nineteen, he began to write a series of satirical essays under the name Jonathan Oldstyle, Gent. and published them in New York City’s Morning Chronicle newspaper. Three years later, he passed the bar exam and became a lawyer. But his love of writing continued, and he published more essays, as well as a book entitled A History of New York under the pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker.

In 1815 Irving went to England to try to help save his family’s floundering shipping business, but in the spring of 1818 the firm was forced to file for bankruptcy. That summer he stayed in Birmingham with his sister Sarah Van Wart and her family. One night, his brother-in-law began reminiscing about New York, and an area Irving spent time in along the Hudson River known as Sleepy Hollow. According to accounts in Washington Irving, An American Original, in the middle of the conversation Irving bolted from his chair and ran to his room, slamming the door behind him. The words to a story were coming almost faster than he could get them down on paper. The conversations about Dutch New York and Sleepy Hollow had inspired and energized him. In that one day, Irving wrote the story of Rip Van Winkle. Soon after, still at Sarah’s house, he outlined The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Feeling motivated, he decided to move to London for a time and dedicate himself to a career as a writer.

He sent a collection of short stories to his brother in New York to be published in a series of volumes in the United States. On June 23, 1819, the first volume of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. went on sale. Two thousand copies were printed and each ninety-three page book cost 75 cents, or about $11 in today’s money. The book was an enormous success. This volume contained the story of Rip Van Winkle but not The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Americans would have to wait for the sixth volume of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. to read that tale.

John Murray's Residence in London

John Murray II’s Residence in London

Meanwhile in London, Irving feared his work would be pirated by British printers, so he set out to find a British publisher to protect his interest. At the recommendation of Sir Walter Scott, Irving appealed to renowned publisher John Murray II, but his work was rejected. He also tried Murray’s former partner Archibald Constable and was rejected again. Determined to profit from his work, Irving decided to take matters into his own hands and self publish his book using John Miller’s Burlington Arcade imprint. The British edition of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent., which included the first four volumes of the American counterpart, was released on February 16, 1820. This edition included the following introduction to the British public:

The following desultory papers are part of a series written in this country, but published in America. The author is aware of the austerity with which the writings of his countrymen have hitherto been treated by British critics; he is conscious, too, that much of the contents of his papers can be interesting only in the eyes of American readers.

Irving was wrong. He was praised by British readers and critics alike.

A month later, the sixth volume of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. was published in America. This is the volume that included The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Not long afterward, this story was released in Britain in the second volume of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.

People on both sides of the Atlantic agreed The Legend of Sleepy Hollow was Irving’s finest work. In fact it was so well received, many literary scholars believe it to be the story that propelled Irving from a man of letters to America’s first international literary celebrity. So while many people think of it as a quaint spooky story that has been immortalized in movies and TV shows, it actually is a significant work in America’s literary history.

I have one last bit of information about the connection between Regency England and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Irving’s original British publisher folded not long after his initial print run. John Murray, who had turned down Irving’s work, stepped in to buy the remainder of his stock and agreed to publish more of his work. So the man who published Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice and Byron’s Don Juan also published the second British volume of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent., the one in that contained The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.

A few more fun facts:

  • In 1835, Irving eventually settled in Tarrytown and bought ten acres of land along the Hudson River. One hundred years prior to Irving’s purchase, a branch of the Van Tassel family had lived in the stone cottage that was on his property.
  • Washington Irving is buried in the family plot in the Old Dutch Church cemetery in Sleepy Hollow, New York. That’s the same cemetery where the Headless Horseman may, or may not, have attacked Ichabod Crane.
  • The idea for my first book, An Unsuitable Duchess, was inspired by Washington Irving’s life, and the story came to me while touring his home years ago. I even named my heroine Katrina.


  • Butler, Joseph T., Washington Irving’s Sunnyside. 1974.
  • Irving, Washington, The Sketchbook of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. 1820.
  • Jones, Brian Jay, Washington Irving, An American Original. 2008.


Five Links I Love About the Regency Era

Links I Love

This past month, I’ve been consumed with editing one of my books. For a historical romance writer, edits do not just include changes to sentences and the altering/addition of scenes. Frequently, they also include historical research to flush out a scene or ensure what you’re writing is accurate to the time period. With that in mind, I thought I’d share five links that I found helpful in my research this past month. I hope you find them as interesting as I do.

  1. Have you every wondered what the inside of a Georgian era townhouse looked like? Jane Austen’s World explains the layout of a typical London townhouse that can be found in Mayfair.
  2. If you were staying in London during the Season and did not own a townhouse, you could lease one. Susanna Ives explains how one leased a house in London during the 18th century.
  3. For those sunny days walking around Hyde Park or attending a garden party, a lady might choose to take her parasol along. But what color would it be? What would it look like? Geri Walton, who writes the fabulous History of the 18th & 19th Centuries blog, has all the info.
  4. When I needed information about Parliament during the Regency era, I turned to Cheryl Bolen’s always helpful Regency Ramblings blog.
  5. And finally, there are times when I’m writing that I’ll use a common expression. I always try my best to search them out and check to see if they were used when my stories take place. This week, I was so happy to find out that you could indeed call someone a dog during the Regency era!
Portrait of the 3rd Earl of Grantham by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1816 from the Getty Museum

Portrait of the 3rdBaron Grantham by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1816 from the Getty Museum

I know I said I would share five links with you, but writers need inspiration, and this was one of mine this month. Consider him a bonus.

Why Regency Era Husbands Would Have Loved Online Shopping

I love when I run across bits of history that show me how similar we are to the people who lived two hundred years ago. Today, I’m writing about a select group of individuals that many of you may know. They are the husbands, boyfriends, and fathers of women who shop. You can easily spot them, sprawled out on the chairs and sofas in clothing stores. They are the ones looking thoroughly bored or completely engrossed with their phones. Some might even be asleep. I have a soft spot for these men, who think enough of the women in their lives to patiently endure such torture.

While I’m accustomed to seeing these poor souls in the stores I frequent, I was surprised to run across such men in a caricature that was printed in 1808. The etching, entitled Miseries of Human Life, is by Isaac Cruikshank and was printed in England. It illustrates the trials endured by husbands while they waited for their wives to finish shopping.

Courtesy of the Lewis Walpole Library

Courtesy of the Lewis Walpole Library

The caption reads:

During the endless time that you are kept waiting in a carriage while the ladies are shopping having your impatience soothed by the setting of a saw close to your ear.

So Regency era gentlemen had to endure the sound of the saw, and today’s gentlemen must contend with the music blaring in some of the shops they sit in. I suppose it’s true, the more things change, the more they stay the same.

*This post is dedicated to all the men who patiently sit in shops and wait for the women in their lives. Stay strong, my friends.

You Can Still Shop in the Footsteps of Regency Era Celebrities

Since so many of you enjoyed my last article on “How to Shop Like a Regency Era Gentleman,” I thought I’d tell you about a few more London shops that were selling goods back in the Regency era and are still open today.

If you’re a person who loves a good scent, you should check out Floris London, located at 89 Jermyn Street. This perfume shop was founded in 1730 by Juan Famenias Floris and his wife Elizabeth, and it currently is still run by their descendants. Throughout the Georgian era, Floris created individual scents for their patrons and were known for their personal grooming supplies. In 1818, while living abroad, Mary Shelley wrote to her friend Thomas Love Peacock in London and asked him to send her “two hairbrushes and a small toothbrush” from Floris. In 1820, they received their first Royal Warrant as Smooth Pointed Comb Maker to King George IV.

FlorisThe first time I stepped into Floris, I was greeted by a helpful clerk behind the counter and was lucky enough to have the store to myself. While perusing their products through the wood and glass display cases that appear to be original, it was easy to imagine what a shopping experience might have been like for a Regency lady. Floris has products for men, women, and the home. If you’d like to try any of their products but can’t make it to London, you can order from Floris online.

For the bluestockings among you, a short walk around the corner from Floris to 187 Piccadilly will take you to Hatchards booksellers. During the Regency era, wealthy men and women could pick up the latest editions from their favorite authors at Hatchards. Nestled close to the popular shopping streets of the day, Hatchards is London’s oldest surviving bookshop. It was founded in 1797 by John Hatchard, and his portrait presides over the shop’s winding staircase that connects the five floors of books.



I will admit, this is one of my favorite places in London, and it’s featured in two of the novels I’ve written. As you walk through the store, you’ll pass the original fireplaces, dark wood paneled walls and rooms crammed with books. I can easily spend an entire day here. If you’re the type to appreciate some quality name-dropping, Queen Charlotte, the Duke of Wellington, and Lord Byron are some of the famous people who have purchased books a Hatchards.

Directly next to Hatchards is Fortnum & Mason, founded as a grocer in 1707 by Hugh Mason and William Fortnum. William was one of Queen Anne’s footmen and had the idea to sell the royal household’s half-used candles to make money. This is how Fortnum & Mason began. While the current building is not the original, the store has always been located at the corner of Duke Street and Piccadilly.

Fortnum and Mason

During the Regency era, Fortnum & Mason was known for food that was easily portable for long distance journeys. They also introduced ready-to-eat specialty items aimed at wealthy area residents. During the Napoleonic Wars, many officers ordered packaged supplies from Fortnum & Mason for a bit of comfort while out on their campaigns. These packages included tea, dried fruit, spices, and other preserves. And in 1814, the Earl of Egremont turned to Fortnum & Mason when he was entertaining the Czar of Russia. Today they are a renowned purveyor of fine food, hampers, tea, and wine. They have a number of restaurants and it’s a lovely place to go for tea.

Speaking of tea, did you know that you can still buy tea in one of Jane Austen’s favorite tea shops? Although Twinings flagship store is located outside of Mayfair and St. James, the quality of the tea was so good, that it was worth the trip. This shop was founded in 1706 and continues to occupy its original location at 216 Strand. Two Chinese men and a lion preside over the doorway just as they did in Jane Austen’s day.

Twinings front door

For the record, none of these stores contacted me to include them in this article. They just happen to be places I like to visit when I’m in London, and when I walk through these shops, I’m reminded that museums aren’t the only places you can visit to feel a sense of the past.

For more information on any of these stores, you can visit their websites:

Where Did the Fashionable Regency Gentlemen Shop?

Since I’ve been known to be a bit fond of shopping, researching where the fashionable gentlemen in my books might go to outfit themselves kept me occupied longer than it probably should have. I’ve gathered together all my notes and decided to share the highlights with you here.

Lord Granville Leveson-Gower by Thomas Lawrence, c1804-1809 (Yale Center for British Art)

Lord Granville Leveson-Gower by Thomas Lawrence, c1804-1809
(Yale Center for British Art)

During the Regency era, London tailors were considered the best in Europe. Any man who was interested in presenting himself as an arbiter of taste, let alone one of the Dandy set, knew he needed to shop in London. Two of the best-known tailors of the day were Schweitzer and Davidson of 12 Cork Street and John Weston, located at 34 Old Bond Street. Weston was known to be the most expensive tailor in London and a favorite of Beau Brummell and the Prince Regent.

Wool Broadcloth Greatcoat with Silk Velvet Trim by John Weston, 1803-1810

Wool Broadcloth Greatcoat with Silk Velvet Trim by John Weston, 1803-1810

Boots were what the fashionable man wore during the day. Hoby, on the corner of Piccadilly and St. James’s Street next to the Old Guards Club, was known as the finest boot maker in London. Their clients included George III, the Prince Regent, Lord Byron, Beau Brummell, members of the ton, and many officers in the army and navy. The Duke of Wellington thought so much of George Hoby that he worked with the boot maker to modify a Hessian boot to his specifications. In 1817, the Duke instructed Mr Hoby to cut his boots shorter and make them tighter. He wanted the trimming removed and the “V” shape straightened out. This new style of boot became the iconic Wellington boot.

Wellington boots made by Hoby between 1817 and 1852.

Wellington boots made by Hoby between 1817 and 1852.

For his beaver hat, a man of fashion could go to Lock & Co Hatters (1676-present) located at 6 St. James’s Street. Lock made hats for Lord Nelson, as well as the plumed hat the Duke of Wellington wore to Waterloo. They also made military helmets for officers in the Hussars and Royal Dragoon Guards, and the folding chapeau-bras gentlemen wore to Court or to Almack’s. Lock & Co. is still in existence and continues to make hats of the finest quality.

Lock & Co.

Across St. James’s Street, a gentleman could venture into Harris’s Apothecary, which was originally located at Number 11. Harris’s opened in 1790 and established a reputation selling Lavender Water, Classic Cologne and English Flower perfumes. They also were known for shaving supplies, soaps, and creams. The company is still in operation, and today you can find them down the street at Number 29 under the name D.R. Harris & Company.

D.R. Harris & Company, London

D.R. Harris & Company, London

After a day in the shops, a gentleman might continue on to Number 3 St. James’s Street, where he could stop in Berry’s for a bottle of his favorite port. Berry’s was established in 1698 as a grocer. In 1810 the owners began to focus more on wine. Beginning in the late 18th century, it became fashionable to be weighed by the shop’s weighing scales. Such notable names in Berry’s weighing books include royal princes, Lord Byron, Beau Brummell and William Pitt the Younger. In the 1940’s the name changed to Berry Bros. & Rudd and that name is still used by the shop today.


Berry Brothers and Rudd

If a gentleman wanted to have his hair cut by someone other than his valet, he could go to Flex Rowland, who was located at the Thatched House Tavern on Haymarket. It is said that Rowland invented macassar oil, which men used in their hair, and specialized in military style haircuts. I found this description in “Round About Piccadilly and Pall Mall or, A Ramble from Haymarket to Hyde Park” by Henry Benjamin Wheatley, published in 1870:

Beneath the tavern front was a range of low-built shops, including that of Flex Rowland, the fashionable hair-dresser, who made a fortune by the sale of his macassar oil.

If a gentleman had a penchant for watch fobs, rings, and snuff boxes, he would certainly know about Rundell, Bridge, and Rundell Jewelers, located at 32 Ludgate Hill (est. 1788). They were the principle jeweler and goldsmith of the Prince Regent. Other prominent jewelers of the day included Phillip’s on Bond Street, Gray’s on Sackville Street, and Jeffrey’s. The Prince Regent was so fond of Jeffrey’s that at one point he owed the jeweler £89,00 in unpaid bills.

Gold-mounted tortoiseshell snuff boxes, supplied by Rundell, Bridge & Rundell, were a favorite royal gift. The richness of their decoration varied according to the status of the recipient. Rundell’s accounts include a number of boxes of the type shown below. A similar tortoiseshell box was sold by Rundell to George IV in 1821 for £81 18s.

Snuff Box made by Rundell, Bridge & Rundell

To fill up his snuff box, the fashionable gentleman would visit Fribourg & Treyer in Haymarket (1790-1981), known throughout London as the purveryor of the finest snuff in Town.

Fribourg & Treyer

One of the best parts about researching these places was seeing how many of them are still in operation. I had visited a few of them the last time I was in London, and now I have one more to see the next time I’m in Town. It’s wonderful to be able to enter a store and know that you can still shop like a Regency gentleman.

If you know of other London shops from the Georgian era that are still in existence that might have appealed to a fashionable gentleman, please post a comment and let me know. I’d love to add them to my list.

Sources used:


Would You Have Given Up Your Jewelry to Fight Napoleon?

If your country asked you to give up something to help fight the enemy, would you do it? Between 1803 and 1815, citizens of Prussia were called upon by members of the royal family to donate their gold and silver jewelry to help finance their country’s efforts in the Napoleonic Wars. In exchange for their precious jewelry, they were given jewelry cast in Berlin iron.


Berlin iron is a metal that was produced in the Prussian royal foundry. It is a black-lacquered cast iron material that was originally used to make objects such as utensils, candlesticks, and medallions, as well as larger objects such as garden furniture, and fencing. The iron was coated with black lacquer to prevent it from rusting. It is that black appearance that gives Berlin ironwork the look of mourning jewelry. Ironwork jewelry was also produced by iron jewelers such as Johann Conrad Geiss.

Berlin Ironwork Bracelet, ca.1815

Berlin Ironwork Bracelet, ca.1815

Prussian citizen’s wore their ironwork jewelry with a sense of patriotic pride. Many pieces bore slogans like “I gave gold for iron” and “for the welfare of our homeland.” This gentleman’s ring features a center medallion with a pair of clasped hands. This symbol represents loyalty and solidarity. On the ring are inscribed the words “there is an echo in France when we say the words honor and Fatherland.”

19th Century Ironwork Men's Ring

Early Berlin ironwork followed fashion and was typically neo-classical in design. Many pieces included cameos and classical figures.

Berlin_Iron_Necklace_l early 19th century

Around 1815, the designs began to change to feature more natural elements.

 Berlin iron_necklace

By 1825, ironwork jewelry remained in favor and pieces were being designed in the gothic revival style.

Berlin Ironwork Bracelets from the V&AI wonder how many people today would give up their jewelry if their country asked them to?

Resources used:



Get Your Bling On – Jewelry of the Georgian Era

Thomas Lawrence PortraitI intended to write this post about an entirely different topic, but then I became distracted by the jewelry I saw in this portrait by Thomas Lawrence. Not one to be able to resist a good sidetrack in my historical research, I followed my urge to find out more about the jewelry that was made during the Georgian era.

The Georgian era is defined as the years between 1714 and 1830. We need to remember that back then, jewelry was crafted by hand. Due to the lack of precision cutting machinery, precious stones cut during the Georgian era have a rougher look than stones cut today. These stones were set low into the metal and backed with silver, gold, or colored foil behind them to enhance the color and reflect more light through the stone. Silver was the only white metal used for setting diamonds. White gold didn’t come into use until after about 1925, platinum after about 1890.

Back and Front of Earrings from my collection, ca.1775-1790

Throughout the Georgian era, diamonds were the stone of choice. Rock crystal and colored stones such as pink topaz, green chrysoberyl, and purple amethyst were popular early on.

5 rose cut diamonds set in gold ca. 1770

Rose Cut Diamond Ring, ca.1770

Pearls were fashionable, set alone or mixed with gemstones, and as the years went on emeralds, garnets, rubies, yellow topaz, onyx, coral, and turquoise came into favor as well.

Georgian Red Coral Bracelet

18th Century Red Coral Bracelet

It may surprise some people to hear that fake stones were also used. These stones were known as paste. Paste is faceted leaded glass cut to resemble gems. It is sometimes called “strass” after the 18th century Parisian jeweler, Georges Frederic Strass who became world famous for his paste jewelry which was even prized by the likes of Marie Antoinette. The earrings from my collection and the earrings below are made of paste. They are day/night earrings. This style of earring was developed during the 18th century. Typically this is a two element earring in which the top cluster can be worn separately from the attached drop, making it a more appropriate choice for daytime wear.

18th Century Day Night Paste Earrings

Day/Night Paste Earring, ca.1770

During the day, women wore very little jewelry. In many instances you can see portraits of women wearing a simple black ribbon around their neck.

Mrs. Hugh Bonfoy by Joshua Reynolds, 1754

Mrs. Hugh Bonfoy by Joshua Reynolds, 1754

Evenings for the aristocratic set, were an entirely different matter. Short necklaces were prefered and some of the most desirable styles included the dog collar, now known as a choker, and rivieres. A riviere is a necklace with individually set stones of the same size or graduating to a larger size in the front. It could be worn alone or with a pendant attached. Often a riviere was part of a parure, which is a suite or set of matching jewelry including a necklace, earrings, bracelet, and brooch.

Georgian Riviere Necklace

18th Century Diamond Riviera Necklace

The girandole was also popular and used in pendants, brooches, and earrings. This design is composed of three hanging pendants that are set with single or multiple stones hanging from a centerpiece. Georgian girandole jewelry were often embellished with bows, foliate motifs and/or garlands. The popularity of this style began to wan around 1790 as neoclassicism began to dominate the styles of the era.

Georgian Emerald and Diamond Girandole Pendant, ca.1780

Diamond and Emerald Girandole Pendant, ca.1780

As the 19th century approached and we move into the Regency era, dress styles changed dramatically and women began to favor delicate empire waist dresses with short sleeves and low necklines. This style of dress was inspired by Europe’s fascination with ancient Greek and Roman culture. Like the style of dresses, the style of jewelry followed suit. Armlets were worn on the upper arms and could be used as a garter to hold up a woman’s glove.


Gold chain esclavage necklaces were part of this neoclassical movement and were worn with drop earrings. These necklaces are comprised of several rows of chains, beads or jewels. In the portrait I was studying, the sitter is wearing an esclavage of pearls.

Georgian Esclavage Necklace ca.1815

Esclavage Necklace, ca.1815

A simpler style of jewelry also complimented the style of Regency era dresses. If your economic condition did not allow for costly pieces, you could adorn yourself with a simple gold chain and a small pendant.

Topaz Crosses That Belonged to Jane and Cassandra Austen

Topaz Crosses That Belonged to Jane and Cassandra Austen

And finally, this was the era that introduced us to one of my favorite pieces of jewelry: the lover’s eyes. The eye miniature set into jewelry is believed to have originated with the Prince of Wales (later George IV) and his secret wife, Maria Fitzherbert. Their relationship was frowned upon by court, so a miniaturist was employed to paint only the eye and thereby preserve anonymity and decorum. The couple married in 1785, though all present knew the marriage was invalid by the Royal Marriages Act, since George III had not approved. It is believed that Maria’s eye miniature was worn by George IV, hidden under his lapel from the time of their courtship. Apparently George’s lover’s eye must not have been much of a secret since this supposedly led to the lover’s eye becoming fashionable between 1790 and the 1820s.

Lover's Eye Brooch from my collection, ca.1800

Lover’s Eye Brooch from my collection, ca.1800

If you lived in London during the Georgian era and were in the market to purchase something lovely to wear to the opera or to a ball, you could have visited these fine establishments for your jewelry:

  • Rundell and Bridge at 32 Ludgate Hill (Rundell, Bridge & Rundell after 1805)
  • Phillip’s on Bond Street
  • Thomas Gray’s on Sackville Street
  • Stedman and Vardon at 36 New Bond Street

Sadly, a large majority of Georgian jewelry has not survived to the present. Many families restyled the pieces to keep up with trends, or they sold them off and the components were taken apart for their value. Brooches and rings are the most common types of Georgian era jewelry still in existence. Earrings and necklaces remain available to a lesser extent. I love the fact that these pieces were all crafted by hand, and I’ll continue to admire them in portraits, and search them out in some of my favorite antique shops.

Resources used include:



A Peek at the 18th Century Dining Room from Kirtlington Park

Dining Room of Kirtlington Park

So I fully admit, I might have a “slight” addiction to the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s period rooms. During a recent visit to the museum, I spent some time in the Dining Room of Kirtlington Park, which the museum acquired in 1933. I thought I’d take you back to the 18th century, to show you where you might have dined if you were a guest of Sir James Dashwood.

Kirtlington Park was built for the English Tory politician Sir James Dashwood, 2nd Baronet (1715-1779). The building was designed by a number of different architects, including William Smith and John Sanderson. It was built between 1742 and 1746, at a cost of over £32,000. The house and its park, which was laid out by Lancelot “Capability” Brown, are approximately ten miles north of Oxford, England. This was a convenient location for Dashwood, who was high steward at the University of Oxford from 1759 till his death. I imagine in that position, he held many dinners at Kirtlington Park.

Sir James Dashwood by Enoch Seeman the Younger (1737)

The original Dining Room from Kirtlington Park was housed behind the three windows on the first floor of the right wing.


Aside from the vibrant color, the other thing that hit me when I first walked into the room was all the beautiful plasterwork. The plaster decoration was designed by John Sanderson.


John Sanderson's drawing for the Dining Room at Kirtlington Park ca. 1747-1748

John Sanderson’s drawing for the Dining Room at Kirtlington Park ca. 1747-1748

The four corners of the ceiling contain panels that represent each of the seasons.

Ceiling of Kirtlington Park

The marble chimneypiece might have been crafted by either John Cheere or Sir Henry Cheere.

Chimneypiece Kirtlington Park

The painting over the mantel is by John Wootton, dated 1748. It’s entitled, Classical Landscape with Gypsies, and it is the only painting that was executed for the room. Additional landscape paintings which were intended for this room were never completed.

Classical Landscape with Gypsies by John Wootton, ca. 1748

Classical Landscape with Gypsies by John Wootton, ca. 1748

As I walked around the room, it was nice to see the enormous mahogany doors and shutters still had their original gilt-bronze hardware.

Door to the Dining Room at Kirtlington Park

Kirtlington Park Dining Room

And, the oak floor was probably cut from trees felled on the estate. The color of the room is an approximate to what was on the walls when Dashwood first moved in. The museum was able to determine this through a microscopic examination of the various layers of paint.

Dining Room Kirtlington Park

I can only imagine what conversations these walls were privy to.

Resources used:

A Fashionable Georgian Address: Berkeley Square

Berkeley Square c.1816

Berkeley Square c.1816

Since the Georgian era, Mayfair has been one of the most prestigious places to live in London.  And during the Georgian era, Berkeley Square was one of the most desirable addresses.

Berkeley Square is actually an oblong garden that was, and is, surrounded by residential and commercial buildings. It’s named after John Berkeley, the 1st Lord Berkeley of Stratton (1602-1678). When Lord Berkeley built his town home on Piccadilly in 1675 for £30,000, he purchased the adjacent land north of his property. In 1692, Berkeley House was sold to William Cavendish, the 1st Duke of Devonshire and the house was renamed Devonshire House. From this 1830’s map, you can see the relationship between Devonshire House and Berkeley Square.

Berkeley Square

The five acres that encompass Berkeley Square were designed in 1730 by William Kent and is home to approximately 30 Maple trees. An equestrian statue of George III originally sat in the square, commissioned by his daughter, the Princess Amelia. The statue was removed in 1827 due to structural problems and a gazebo was erected on the site.

Berkeley Square

During my last visit to London, I stayed near Berkeley Square and took frequent walks around the Square. Sadly, only a few of the original buildings remain. Lansdowne House is one of those buildings, except the structure has been altered over the years. It is now an office building and private club. It stood next to Devonshire House until that building was torn down in 1920. Lansdowne House was designed by Robert Adam for Prime Minister John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. In 1765 it was sold, unfinished, to William Petty-Fitzmaurice (1737-1805), Earl of Shelburne, later 1st Marquess of Lansdowne and a leading Whig statesman of the period. His home was a popular meeting place for social and political circles. Information on the dining room of this home can be found elsewhere on this website.

Lansdowne House

Lansdowne House

And speaking of dining, Gunter’s Tea Shop was a fixture on Berkeley Square beginning in 1757. This shop was housed in Nos. 7 and 8, and was one of the finest confectioners in London. They sold syrups, candied fruits, cakes, biscuits, ices, delicate sugar spun fantasies, and elaborate table decorations. In addition to eating your ice or ice cream inside the shop, you could also order from the convenience of your carriage. A waiter would bring your order out to you, giving you the opportunity to eat your treat in your carriage under the shade of Berkeley Square. It was a popular destination during the Regency era, since it was the only establishment in London where a lady could be seen eating alone with a gentleman who was not her relative, without it harming her reputation.

John Linnell's design for a State Bed, 1765

John Linnell’s design for a State Bed, 1765

Another business located on Berkeley Square belonged to cabinetmaker John Linnell (1729-1796), who occupied No. 28. He was one of the first English furniture makers to be educated in design, studying at St. Martin’s Lane Academy. During his lifetime, John Linnell produced high-quality furniture that rivaled other leading craftsmen of the day such as Thomas Chippendale. Aside from producing beautiful furniture, Linnell submitted designs for the State Coach of George III and produced the designs for the boxes at Drury Lane Theater. These boxes might have been occupied, at one time or another, by some of his notable neighbors.

Horace Walpole by Joshua Reynolds

Horace Walpole by Joshua Reynolds

Horace Walpole, the Whig politician, lived at no. 11 from 1779 until his death in 1797.

Sarah Child Villiers, Lady Jersey

Sarah Child Villiers, Lady Jersey

No. 38 was the Jersey Residence. On May 23, 1804, in the drawing room of that home, Lady Sarah Sophia Fane, the daughter of the 10th Earl of Westmorland, married George, Viscount Villiers, and became Lady Jersey when her husband inherited the title. She was a patroness of Almack’s and a prominent figure in Society. Her Berkeley Square town house was her London residence throughout her marriage, and she died there in 1867 at the age of 81.

George Bryan "Beau" Brummell

George Bryan “Beau” Brummell

Beau Brummell, the arbiter of men’s fashion, lived at No. 42 in 1792.

Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive

Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive

No. 45 was home to Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, (1725–1774), also known as Clive of India. He was a British officer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He’s credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown. After returning home, he sat as a Tory Member of Parliament. In 1774, Clive died in his Berkeley Square home. There was no inquest into his death, however there was speculation he died from a self-inflicted wound or an overdose.

The Right Honorable George Canning

The Right Honorable George Canning

A few doors down, the Right Honorable George Canning, a former Prime Minister, called No. 50 his London home, until his death in 1827. It was then leased by a Miss Curzon, who lived there until she died at the age of 90. The next resident is responsible for giving this house its reputation as one of the most haunted houses in London. A Mr. Meyers was soon to be married and took possession of the house, furnishing it for his bride. Shortly before the wedding, the woman jilted him. He moved into a tiny room at the top of the building and shut himself off from the world. Years later, a number of people died while spending time in that room, and in each instance their deaths were preceded by terrible screams. If you want to read more about this haunted house, check out the 50 Berkeley Square website listed below. And if you are every around Berkeley Square, you might want to look for No. 50. The house is still standing.

50 Berkeley Square

50 Berkeley Square

Resources used include:

50 Berkeley Square –

Jane Austen’s World –

British History Online –

Number One London –

Regency History –

The Devoted Classicist –

The Georgian Index –

The Victoria and Albert Museum –